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May. 30th, 2012

Vitruvian Fairy

[sticky post] Grammar Sticky

Now that I have a lot of the basics of the grammar figured out, I'm going to start making a series of posts going over it all and link them to a sticky post (if I can figure out how to do that). This will make it easier to look up specific aspects of the language and help me crystalize the concepts and work out the kinks.

So for those who've been following this blog, bear with me. I'm going to be restating a lot of what I've already been over.

Phonemics and Romanization / Stress
Gender / Gender and Vowels / Gender and Consonants
Pluralization
Direct Objects / Indirect Objects
Prepositions
Pronouns
Articles?
Adjectives and Fort-Shifting
Word Order / Topicalization
Yes/No Questions / Question Words
Tense Marking Nouns
Tense Structure: Tier 1 / Tier 2 / Tier 3
Verbs and Intention (Further Explanation) / Other Verb Forms / Cause to be
Conjunctions
Relative Clauses: Part 1 / Part 2 / Part 3
Passive Voice
Using Numbers / History of Numbers

Core Vocabulary
People / Animals / Immediate Family
Basic Verbs / Come and Go, Give and Take
Cardinal Numbers / Ordinal Numbers
Around the House
Colors
Weather / The Seasons

Jan. 3rd, 2013

Vitruvian Fairy

Weather

usham cloud
eshym fog, mist
echys rain
uchas hard rain, downpour
shyra snow
fythen breeze
vasun wind

khuf hot
hef warm
cheth cool
jus cold

Rather than saying, "It's raining," or "it's sunny," like in English, the phrasing is, "rain is falling," and "sun is shining."

zhi zalu the sun is shining
buchi echys a light rain is falling
buchi uchas a heavy rain is falling
buchi shyra snow is falling
nib eshym fog is sitting (i.e. there is fog sitting on the ground, it's foggy)
fasra bu ushammwa the sky is with clouds (i.e. there are clouds in the sky)
(ni) khalydu fasra bu ushammwa the sky is fat with clouds (i.e. is it overcast)
fethin fythen a breeze is blowing
vusin vasun a wind is blowing

lu khuf the day is hot
fasa hef the air is warm
fythen cheth the breeze is cool
le jus the night is cold

Jun. 20th, 2012

Vitruvian Fairy

Word Order

Standard word order is verb-subject-object (VSO). Indirect objects can go either after the direct object (or in its place, if there isn't one) or before the verb.

Examples
Isan dasu napysh.
Eat mouse cheese(dir-obj).
The mouse ate the cheese.

Isan dasu napysh ar abad.
Eat mouse cheese(dir-obj) at floor.
The mouse eats the cheese on the floor.

Ar abad isan dasu napysh.
At floor eat mouse cheese(dir-obj).
The mouse eats the cheese on the floor.

Isan dasu ar abad.
Eat mouse at floor.
The mouse eats on the floor.

Ar abad isan dasu.
At floor eat mouse.
The mouse eats on the floor.

Feb. 28th, 2012

Vitruvian Fairy

Using Multiple Adjectives

Adjectives immediately follow the words they describe, and that includes if they follow other adjectives. If you want to describe a noun (or verb) with more than one adjective, you need to link them with the conjunction ym (and). Let's compare some sentences.

Ni mysu ybwn ym valydu.
Is cat small and beautiful.
The cat is small and beautiful.

The above indicates that the cat has both qualities, that of being small and of being beautiful. Now let's take out ym and see what happens.

Ni mysu ybwn valydu.
Is cat small beautiful.
The cat is beautifully small.

This sentence indicates that the cat is small, and the smallness is beautiful.

Jan. 24th, 2012

Vitruvian Fairy

Unpossession

Following up on my last post, possessives can be negated with the word "khu" (no, not) before either the verb or the preposition. So from the previous examples, we get:

Khu ni mysu yb wyn.
Not is cat of me.
That's not my cat.

Ni mysu khu yb wyn.
Is cat not of me.
The cat isn't mine.

Khu ni myn bu mysu.
Not is me with cat.
I don't have a cat. / I am not becatted.

Ni myn khu bu mysu.
Is me not with cat.
I don't have a cat. / I am unbecatted.


Using "khu" before both the verb and preposition makes a technically correct but confusing double negative.

Khu ni myn khu bu mysu.
Not is me not with cat.
I don't not have a cat. / I am not unbecatted.

Dec. 15th, 2011

Vitruvian Fairy

To Be or Not To Be

In sentences in which the only verb is "ni" (to be), the verb can be left our all together, especially in casual usage, as long as the meaning remains clear.

For example:
Ni mytsu falyte.
The cat is pretty.

Can be shortened to:
Mytsu falyte.

Which can be translated either as, "Pretty cat," or "The cat is pretty," depending on context.

Dec. 14th, 2011

Vitruvian Fairy

Example Sentences

Some samples of transitive, intransitive and passive voice sentences, in the perfect and imperfect aspects.

Khudri mytsu ndatsu.
Hunt cat mouse(direct-object).
The cat hunts the mouse.

Khudri mytsu ndatsiu.
Hunt cat mouse(direct-object-past).
The cat has hunted the mouse.

Khudri mytsu.
Hunt cat.
The cat hunts.

Ni mytsu ghadriniu.
Is cat hunting(direct-object-past).
The cat has hunted.

Khudri u ndatsu.
Hunt on mouse(direct-object).
The mouse is being hunted.

Ni khadrinu ndatsiu.
Is hunting mouse(direct-object-past).
The mouse has been hunted.

Dec. 8th, 2011

Vitruvian Fairy

Using Adjectives

Most adjectives can be used to modify either nouns or verbs. In both cases, they follow the word they modify. Emphasis can be added by doubling the main part of the adjective (everything but the final CV).

Examples:
mïtsu falhïte = pretty cat
mïtsu falhïfalhïte = very pretty cat

barkhu carïda = friendly dog
barkhu carïcarïda = very friendly dog

ruli lalïda = to speak lyrically
ruli lalïlalïda = to speak very lyrically

Dec. 6th, 2011

Vitruvian Fairy

Gerunds and Intransitive Clauses

Gerunds are formed similarly to plurals, with the suffix CV, where C is the lenited version of the final consonant and V is the gendered vowel. In multi-sylabic verbs, where there is a gendered vowel elsewhere in the verb, that one is changed to a neutral vowel (usually a).

Examples:
burkhi (to bark) -> barkhingu (the barking)
cari (to befriend) -> carina (the befriending)
khunti (to howl) -> khantisu (the howling)
matsi (to meow) -> matsisu (the meowing)


Intransitive clauses, i.e. clauses with no direct object, are conjugated normally in the imperfect aspect. But in the perfect and predictive aspects, the verb is replaced with "ni" (to be/do) and the gerund of the verb becomes the direct object.

Examples:
matsi mïtsu = the cat meows
ni mïtsu matsisiu = the cat has meowed
ni mïtsu matsisuy = the cat is going to meow

Oct. 13th, 2011

Vitruvian Fairy

Borrowings from Irish and Others

I plan to borrow bits of grammar and some vocabulary from the Celtic languages, and maybe the Scandinavian languages as well, since those are the regions where most fairy lore comes from, and because I like how they sound.

I know it's probably pretty cliché in conlanging, but I want FairyLang to use some consonant mutation/lenition like Irish (and Sindarin, my biggest inspiration), but the specific rules of the lenition will be my own. In my research (more on that in the next post) I also learned about fortition, which I now also want to include in some form.

I am also strongly considering a verb-subject-object word order, like Irish.

As for vocab borrowings, I've already decided on one Irish word I want to steal, because it happens to be my wife's name and have an appropriate meaning (don't worry, it's nice).